Cancer Treatment in India

Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.

Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.

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Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors.

Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor.

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The branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cancer is called Oncology. A medical personnel dedicated to practising oncology is called an Oncologist. Though later stages of cancer are fatal, but with the current advances in the field of medicine, there has been much improvement in the chances of survival.

How Cancer  Cell Works/Replicates :

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Cancer cells are cells gone wrong in other words, they no longer respond to many of the signals that control cellular growth and death. Cancer cells originate within tissues and, as they grow and divide, they diverge ever further from normalcy. Over time, these cells become increasingly resistant to the controls that maintain normal tissue and as a result, they divide more rapidly than their progenitors and become less dependent on signals from other cells. Cancer cells even evade programmed cell death, despite the fact that their multiple abnormalities would normally make them prime targets for apoptosis. In the late stages of cancer, cells break through normal tissue boundaries and metastasize (spread) to new sites in the body.

Cells become cancerous after mutations accumulate in the various genes that control cell proliferation. According to research findings from the Cancer Genome Project, most cancer cells possess 60 or more mutations. The challenge for medical researchers is to identify which of these mutations are responsible for particular kinds of cancer. This process is akin to searching for the proverbial needle in a haystack, because many of the mutations present in these cells have little to nothing to do with cancer growth.

Different kinds of cancers have different mutational signatures. However, scientific comparison of multiple tumor types has revealed that certain genes are mutated in cancer cells more often than others. For instance, growth-promoting genes, such as the gene for the signaling protein Ras, are among those most commonly mutated in cancer cells, becoming super-active and producing cells that are too strongly stimulated by growth receptors. Some chemotherapy drugs work to counteract these mutations by blocking the action of growth-signaling proteins. The breast cancer drug Herceptin, for example, blocks overactive receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and the drug Gleevec blocks a mutant signaling kinase associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Other cancer-related mutations inactivate the genes that suppress cell proliferation or those that signal the need for apoptosis. These genes, known as tumor suppressor genes, normally function like brakes on proliferation, and both copies within a cell must be mutated in order for uncontrolled division to occur. For example, many cancer cells carry two mutant copies of the gene that codes for p53, a multifunctional protein that normally senses DNA damage and acts as a transcription factor for checkpoint control genes.

How many types of Cancer?

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Adolescents, Cancer in
Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
AIDS-Related Cancers
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
AIDS-Related Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
Primary CNS Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
Anal Cancer
Appendix Cancer – see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors
Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer)

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin – see Skin Cancer
Bile Duct Cancer
Bladder Cancer
Childhood Bladder Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)
Brain Tumors
Breast Cancer
Childhood Breast Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Bronchial Tumors, Childhood – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Burkitt Lymphoma – see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal)
Childhood Carcinoid Tumors – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Carcinoma of Unknown Primary
Childhood Carcinoma of Unknown Primary – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Central Nervous System
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Primary CNS Lymphoma
Cervical Cancer
Childhood Cervical Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Childhood Cancers
Cancers of Childhood, Unusual
Cholangiocarcinoma – see Bile Duct Cancer
Chordoma, Childhood – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Colorectal Cancer
Childhood Colorectal Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma – see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome)

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) – see Breast Cancer

Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)
Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Esophageal Cancer
Childhood Esophageal Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer)
Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor

Eye Cancer
Childhood Intraocular Melanoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Intraocular Melanoma

Fallopian Tube Cancer
Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Malignant, and Osteosarcoma

Gallbladder Cancer
Gastric (Stomach) Cancer
Childhood Gastric (Stomach) Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Childhood Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

Germ Cell Tumors
Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer)
Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors
Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
Testicular Cancer
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Hairy Cell Leukemia
Head and Neck Cancer
Heart Tumors, Childhood – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer
Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell
Hodgkin Lymphoma
Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Intraocular Melanoma
Childhood Intraocular Melanoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Liver Cancer
Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell)
Childhood Lung Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

Male Breast Cancer
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma
Childhood Melanoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye)
Childhood Intraocular Melanoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)
Mesothelioma, Malignant
Childhood Mesothelioma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Metastatic Cancer
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)
Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes
Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms
Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)
Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic

Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone
Ovarian Cancer
Childhood Ovarian Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pancreatic Cancer
Childhood Pancreatic Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)
Childhood Paraganglioma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Parathyroid Cancer
Penile Cancer
Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Childhood Pheochromocytoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pituitary Tumor
Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pregnancy and Breast Cancer
Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma
Primary Peritoneal Cancer
Prostate Cancer

Rectal Cancer
Recurrent Cancer
Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer
Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Uterine Sarcoma
Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma)
Skin Cancer
Childhood Skin Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small Intestine Cancer
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin – see Skin Cancer
Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
Childhood Stomach (Gastric) Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous – see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome)
Testicular Cancer
Childhood Testicular Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Oropharyngeal Cancer
Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Thyroid Cancer
Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)

Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of
Childhood Cancer of Unknown Primary – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Urethral Cancer
Uterine Cancer, Endometrial
Uterine Sarcoma

Vaginal Cancer
Childhood Vaginal Cancer – see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Vulvar Cancer

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

Diagnosis and Staging:

Cancer can cause many different symptoms. Most often these symptoms are not caused by cancer, but by benign tumors or other problems. If you have symptoms that last for a couple of weeks, your doctor will do a physical exam and order tests or other procedures to find out what is causing your symptoms.

If you do find out you have cancer, your doctor will order another set of tests or procedures to figure out its stage. Stage refers to the extent of your cancer and is based on factors such as how large the tumor is and if it has spread. Once your doctor knows the stage of your cancer, he will be able to suggest treatment and discuss your prognosis with you. Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones feel more in control and cope with your diagnosis.

Symptoms of Cancer : Cancer can cause different symptoms, such as abnormal bumps, night sweats, or unexplained weight gain or loss. Only a doctor can tell if symptoms are caused by cancer or some other problem.

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How Cancer Is Diagnosed ?  – If you have a symptom that does not go away or a screening test result that suggests cancer, the doctor must find out whether it is due to cancer or some other cause. Learn about tests and procedures that help figure out the reason for your problems.

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Cancer Staging – Staging is the process of determining details about your cancer, such as tumor size and if it has spread. The stage guides decisions about treatment.

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Staging Analysis of Breast Cancer

Understanding Cancer Prognosis – Prognosis describes how serious your cancer is and your chances of survival. Learn about survival statistics and how they are used to estimate prognosis.


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Common Questions about Cancer :

What type of cancer do I have?
What is the stage of my cancer?
Has it spread to other areas of my body?
Will I need more tests before treatment begins? Which ones?
Will I need a specialist for my cancer treatment?
Will you help me find a doctor to give me another opinion on the best treatment plan for me?
How serious is my cancer?
What are my chances of survival?

Who is the best doctor for Cancer Treatment?
Which is the best hospital for Cancer treatment in India?
What are the ways to treat my type and stage of cancer?
What are the benefits and risks of each of these treatments?
What treatment do you recommend? …
When will I need to start treatment?
Will I need to be in the hospital for treatment? …
What is my chance of recovery with this treatment?

Common Cancer Types :

  1. Bladder Cancer
  2. Breast Cancer
  3. Colon and Rectal Cancer
  4. Endometrial Cancer
  5. Kidney Cancer
  6. Leukemia
  7. Liver Cancer
  8. Lung Cancer
  9. Melanoma
  10. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  11. Pancreatic Cancer
  12. Prostate Cancer
  13. Thyroid Cancer

What does cancer treatment cost?

The cost of Cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, could average between $11,000 to $12,000 a month, based on the type of cancer/stage of cancer/medications used etc………

For most patients, health insurance covers most of the costs of cancer treatment but still leaves major bills for patients to pay out of pocket.

How to Find Best Cancer Doctor / Oncologist  ?

  1. Look for a doctor who treats the specific type of cancer that you have. Depending on your treatment plan, you may need a medical, surgical, and/or radiation oncologist. You may also work with more than one type of oncologist. Learn more about types of oncologists.
  1. Find out whether the doctor participates in your health insurance plan. Many insurance plans allow their members to look up doctors by name or speciality. The doctor’s office staff can tell you which insurance plans they accept.
  1. Talk about your choice with family and friends, especially those who have received treatment for the same type of cancer. Ask which doctors they have seen and what their experiences were.
  1. Evaluate the doctor’s credentials. Find out whether the doctor received any advanced training. Confirm that he or she is board certified in oncology. This means that the person has passed a high-level examination.

Get Video Consultation @ your place with your Oncologist

Treatment Options for Cancer:

Treatment Of Oncology : There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is.

Surgery : When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon removes cancer from your body. Learn the different ways that surgery is used against cancer and what you can expect before, during, and after surgery.

Radiation Therapy : Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

Immunotherapy : Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. Get information about the types of immunotherapy and what you can expect during treatment.

Targeted Therapy : Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about common side effects that may occur.

Hormone Therapy : Hormone therapy is a treatment that slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Learn about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

Stem Cell Transplant :  Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants, side effects that may occur, and how stem cell transplants are used in cancer treatment.

Precision Medicine : Precision medicine helps doctors select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the role precision medicine plays in cancer treatment, including how genetic changes in a person’s cancer are identified and used to select treatments.

Best Cancer Hospitals in India

  1. Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (Government Hospital)
  2. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi (Government Hospital)
  3. BGS Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Bangalore (Private hospital)
  4. Apollo Cancer Centre, Chennai (Private Hospital)
  5. American Oncology Institute, Hyderabad (Private Hospital)
  6. Basavatarakam Indo American Cancer Hospital & Research Institute
  7. Yashoda Cancer Institute
  8. Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital and Research Centre
  9. Columbia Asia Hospital
  10. Mazumdar Shaw Cancer Centre
  11. V S Hospital
  12. Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital
  13. SIMS Hospital
  14. Action Cancer Hospital
  15. BLK Hospital
  16. AIIMS
  17. Fortis Hospital, Mulund
  18. Adyar Cancer Institute, Chennai (Charitable hospital)
  19. KIDWAI Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (Government hospital)
  20. Saifee Hospital, Mumbai (Private hospital)
  21. Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai (Private hospital)
  22. Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi (Private hospital)


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2 thoughts on “Cancer Treatment in India – Reviews, Cost, Stage 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 4, Chemo, Radiation and Surgery”

  1. Hi,

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    Thank you very much for support.

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