Heart Attack

Heart Attack

What Is Acute Myocardial Infarction?

  1. Acute myocardial infarction is the medical name for a heart attack. Heart attacks occur when the flow of blood to the heart becomes blocked. They can cause tissue damage and can even be life-threatening.
  2. A number of different factors may increase your risk for a heart attack, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.


Acute myocardial infarction is the medical name for a heart attack. A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. A blockage can develop due to a buildup of plaque, a substance mostly made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products.

What Are the Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction?

While the classic symptoms of a heart attack are chest pain and shortness of breath, the symptoms can be quite varied. The most common symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • pressure or tightness in the chest
  • pain in the chest, back, jaw, and other areas of the upper body that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back
  • shortness of breath
  • sweating
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • anxiety
  • a cough
  • dizziness
  • a fast heart rate

It’s important to note that not all people who have heart attacks experience the same symptoms or the same severity of symptoms. Chest pain is the most commonly reported symptom among both women and men. However, women are more likely than men to have:

  • shortness of breath
  • jaw pain
  • upper back pain
  • lightheadedness
  • nausea
  • vomiting

In fact, some women who have had a heart attack report that their symptoms felt like the symptoms of the flu.

What Causes Acute Myocardial Infarction?

Your heart is the main organ in your cardiovascular system, which also includes different types of blood vessels. Some of the most important vessels are the coronary arteries. They take oxygen-rich blood to all of the organs in your body, including your heart. When these arteries become blocked or narrowed due to a buildup of plaque, the blood flow to your heart can decrease significantly or stop completely. This can cause a heart attack. Several factors may lead to a blockage in the coronary arteries.

Bad Cholesterol

Bad cholesterol, also called low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of the leading causes of a blockage in the arteries. Cholesterol is a colorless substance that’s found in the food you eat. Your body also makes it naturally. Not all cholesterol is bad, but LDL cholesterol can stick to the walls of your arteries and produce plaque. Plaque is a hard substance that blocks blood flow in the arteries. Blood platelets, which help the blood to clot, may stick to the plaque and build up over time.

Saturated Fats

Saturated fats may also contribute to the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries. Saturated fats are found mostly in meat and dairy products, including beef, butter, and cheese. These fats may lead to an arterial blockage by increasing the amount of bad cholesterol in your blood system and reducing the amount of good cholesterol.

Trans Fat

Another type of fat that contributes to clogged arteries is trans fat, or hydrogenated fat. Trans fat is usually artificially produced and can be found in a variety of processed foods. Trans fat is typically listed on food labels as hydrogenated oil or partially hydrogenated oil.

Who Is at Risk for Acute Myocardial Infarction?

Certain factors may increase your risk of having a heart attack.

High Blood Pressure

You’re at greater risk for heart attack if you have high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) depending on your age. As the numbers increase, so does your risk of developing heart problems. Having high blood pressure damages your arteries and accelerates the buildup of plaque.

High Cholesterol Levels

Having high levels of cholesterol in your blood puts you at risk for acute myocardial infarction. You may be able to lower your cholesterol by making changes to your diet or by taking certain medications called statins.

High Triglyceride Levels

High triglyceride levels also increase your risk for having a heart attack. Triglycerides are a type of fat that clog up your arteries. Triglycerides from the food you eat travel through your blood until they’re stored in your body, typically in your fat cells. However, some triglycerides may remain in your arteries and contribute to the buildup of plaque.

Diabetes and High Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes is a condition that causes blood sugar, or glucose, levels to rise. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and eventually lead to coronary artery disease. This is a serious health condition that can trigger heart attacks in some people.


Your chances of having a heart attack are higher if you’re very overweight. Obesity is associated with various conditions that increase the risk of heart attack, including:

  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol levels
  • high triglyceride levels


Smoking tobacco products increases your risk for heart attack. It may also lead to other cardiovascular conditions and diseases.


The risk of having a heart attack increases with age. Men are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 45, and women are at a higher risk of a heart attack after age 55.

Family History

You’re more likely to have a heart attack if you have a family history of early heart disease. Your risk is especially high if you have male family members who developed heart disease before age 55 or if you have female family members who developed heart disease before age 65.

Other factors that can increase your risk for heart attack include:

  • stress
  • a lack of exercise
  • the use of certain illegal drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines
  • a history of preeclampsia, or high blood pressure during pregnancy


4 thoughts on “Acute Myocardial Infarction”

    1. is it high blood pressure causes MI?

      Blood pressure is not an accurate predictor of a heart attack. Sometimes a heart attack can cause an increase or decrease in blood pressure, but having a change in blood pressure reading doesn’t always mean it’s heart-related. … Chest pain is the most common symptom of a heart attack.

      Best Cardiologist in Delhi :
      1. Dr. Ashok Seth
      Cardiac Surgeon
      Chairman , MBBS, MD, FRCP, MRCP, Fellowship, 38 years of experience
      New Delhi , India

      2. Dr Y K Mishra
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      3. Dr. Neeraj Bhalla
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      4. Dr. K. K. Saxena
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      Senior Consultant , MBBS, MD, 35 years of experience
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      5. Dr. K.K.Talwar
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      6. Dr. P. K. Khanna
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      7. Dr. Subhash Chandra
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    1. A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, can be fatal, but treatment has improved dramatically over the years. It’s crucial to call 911 or emergency medical help if you think you might be having a heart attack.

      A heart attack occurs when one or more of your coronary arteries become blocked. Over time, a coronary artery can narrow from the buildup of various substances, including cholesterol (atherosclerosis). This condition, known as coronary artery disease, causes most heart attacks.

      CAUSES :

      During a heart attack, one of these plaques can rupture and spill cholesterol and other substances into the bloodstream. A blood clot forms at the site of the rupture. If large enough, the clot can block the flow of blood through the coronary artery, starving the heart muscle of oxygen and nutrients (ischemia).

      You might have a complete blockage or partial. A complete blockage means you’ve had an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A partial blockage means you’ve had a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Diagnostic steps and treatment might be different depending on which you’ve had.

      Another cause of a heart attack is a spasm of a coronary artery that shuts down blood flow to part of the heart muscle. Using tobacco and illicit drugs, such as cocaine, can cause a life-threatening spasm.

      Best Cardiologist in India:
      1.Dr. Ashok Seth – Dr. Seth is the most renowned cardiologist in India. At present, he has operated more than 50,000 angiograms and 20,000 angioplasties. You can find him listed in the “LIMCA” Book of Records for performing the most numbers of angiographies and angioplasties around the globe. Dr. Seth has been the Vice President of the Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology and the President of the Cardiological Society of India. He is the first cardiologist to perform an angioscopy and directional atherectomy in the Asia Pacific Region. According to the survey by The Economic Times, he is considered among the best cardiologist in India.

      Awards & Membership :
      1. Padma Shri, awarded by the President of India
      2. Padma Bhushan award by the President of India, Doctor of the Year Award – Escorts

      Hospital : Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Friends Colony, New Delhi, Delhi 110025

      2. Dr. Praveen Chandra – Dr. Praveen Chandra is one of the best cardiologist in India in the field of interventional cardiology. Every year he performs more than 2,500 diagnostic procedures and 2,000 percutaneous interventions (including valvuloplasty). Apart from this, he is proficient with the new devices and the latest technology. He is the first cardiologist in India to introduce new devices like Rotarex, Kensey Nash DPD for heart treatment. Dr. Praveen is the Chairman of Division of Interventional Cardiology at one of the best heart hospital in India, Medanta – The Medicity Gurgaon.

      Awards & Membership :
      1. Padma Shri Award, the fourth highest civilian award in India, by the Honourable President of India in 2016
      2. Awarded for success and achievement in the field of coronary angioplasty in India in 1998.

      Hospital : Medanta, The Medicity, Sector – 38, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001

      3.Dr Naresh Trehan – Dr. Trehan has operated more than 48,000 heart surgeries. Since 1991, he is working as a personal surgeon of Pranab Mukherjee, former president of India. Now he is the chairman, managing director, and chief cardiac surgeon at Medanta hospital, Gurgaon. Initially, he worked in major hospitals in the USA and was the former director of Fortis Escorts Heart Institute. Dr. Trehan is proficient in transmyocardial laser revascularisation, reduction ventriculoplasty, myocardial total arterial revascularization, heart surgery and robotically assisted cardiac surgery.

      Awards & Membership :
      1. Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award by President of India (2005)
      2. Padma Shri Award by President of India (1991)
      3. Dr. B.C. Roy National Award (2005)
      4. Padma Bhushan award by President of India (2001)

      Hospital : Medanta, The Medicity, Sector – 38, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001

      4.Dr Devi Shetty – Dr. Shetty. He is the chairman and executive director of the Narayana Institute of Cardiac Science. He has operated more than 15,000 heart surgeries and has performed Asia’s first dynamic cardiomyoplasty operation to toughen the weak heart muscle. His dedication and hard work towards his profession earned him the Outstanding Social Entrepreneurship Award by the Confederation of Indian Industry, the President’s Award by the American College of Cardiology and Lifetime Achievement Award by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry.

      Awards & Membership :
      1. Padma Shri in 2004
      2. Padma Bhushan in 2012
      3. Karnataka Ratna in 2001

      Hospital :Narayana Institute of Cardiac Science, Hosur Road, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Anekal Taluk, Bangalore, Karnataka 560099

      5. Dr. Talwar is the one to introduce implantable Cardioverter and Defibrillator (ICD) Therapy in India and South Asian region way back in 1995, making him one of the most experience and best cardiologist in India. Before joining St Stephens Hospital as a consultant, he was working for the Max Super Specialty Hospital as a Chairman. He has been listed in LIMCA Book of World Records for introducing ICD treatment in India & South Asian region. He is associated with President Heart Failure Society of India and former Chairman Medical Council of India.

      Awards & Membership :
      1. Awarded Padma Bhushan in 2006
      2. B.C Roy Award – 2000
      3. Aryabhat Award – 2012
      4. Searle Award – 1987

      Hospital : Max Health Care Saket Delhi

      6.Dr. Tarlochan Singh Kler – Dr. Kler is a very active interventional cardiologist and has performed more than 10,000 coronary, renal & peripheral angioplasties. He is an expert electrophysiologist, doing maximum number of Radio Frequency Ablations & is one of the highest implanter of ICD’s & Combo devices in the country. He has about 150 national & international journal articles to his name & has been on the editorial board of Indian Heart Journal. Dr. Kler is regularly invited as a guest faculty to various National & International conferences like HRS & ACC and has been a guest faculty in USA, France, Australia, Pakistan, Srilanka, Bangladesh & Singapore. Over the last 25 years Dr. Kler has personally trained more than 200 cardiologists from India & abroad to perform advanced techniques of angiography, angioplasty & electrophysiology. Dr. Kler has many firsts to his credit, establishing the 1st dedicated Electrophysiology Department in India at Escorts Hospital; being the 1st one to implant an ICD in S.E. Asia; the 1st to implant a Heart Failure Device (Bi-ventricular pacemaker) in S.E. Asia; the 1st to implant a Combo device in S.E. Asia & being the 1st one to perform Radio Frequency Ablation in Sri Lanka & Bangladesh. Dr. Kler was first to implant an ICD in Punjab Institute of Cardiology, LAHORE & also started Radiofrequency Ablation programme in that institute. He has also helped to establish Cardiology & Electrophysiology Departments at various centres in India, thus bringing quality medical care to people outside the metropolitan cities.

      Hospital : PSRI Heart Institute, Sheikh Sarai 2 Opposite Saket Family Court, New Delhi, Delhi 110017

      7. Dr. Ashwin B Mehta – Dr. Mehta, a well-known interventional cardiologist in India, has been providing his services to the society with astounding results. Former director of cardiology at Jaslok Hospital, now he is a consultant cardiologist at the prestigious Breach Candy Hospital and Ashwin B Mehta Clinic. Moreover, he has performed 10,000 angioplasties and 50,000 angiographies. He has been called for numerous teaching seminars, conferences, and meetings for presentation and deliberations.

      Awards and Publications:
      Percutaneous coronary interventions of bifurcating lesion – Cardiology Society of India, New Delhi, December’ 2006.

      Thrombus extraction devices in Percutaneous coronary interventions – Cardiology Society of India, New Delhi, December’ 2006.

      Study of Percutaneous coronary interventions in post CABG patients – Cardiology Society of Indian, New Delhi, December’ 2006.

      peaker – Antegrade Wire-based Approach (during session – Coronary CTO: Part 1) on 25th June 2014 at the C3 meeting at Orlando.

      Presented a talk on ‘Most CTOs that truly need to be intervened can be done Antegrade on 6th June 2015 during the IJCTO conference at Lucknow.

      Hospital : Breach Candy Hospital, Bhulabhai Desai Marg, Breach Candy, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400026

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