Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while a tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson’s disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may show little or no expression, or your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Parkinson’s disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Although Parkinson’s disease can’t be cured, medications may markedly improve your symptoms. In occasional cases, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

Symptoms

Parkinson’s disease symptoms and signs may vary from person to person. Early signs may be mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.

Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:

  • Tremor. A tremor, or shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may notice a back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger, known as a pill-rolling tremor. One characteristic of Parkinson’s disease is a tremor of your hand when it is relaxed (at rest).
  • Slowed movement (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may reduce your ability to move and slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk, or you may find it difficult to get out of a chair. Also, you may drag your feet as you try to walk, making it difficult to move.
  • Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can limit your range of motion and cause you pain.
  • Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Loss of automatic movements. In Parkinson’s disease, you may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk.
  • Speech changes. You may have speech problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than with the usual inflections.
  • Writing changes. It may become hard to write, and your writing may appear small.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have any of the symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease — not only to diagnose your condition but also to rule out other causes for your symptoms.

Causes

In Parkinson’s disease, certain nerve cells (neurons) in the brain gradually break down or die. Many of the symptoms are due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When dopamine levels decrease, it causes abnormal brain activity, leading to signs of Parkinson’s disease.

The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role, including:

  • Your genes. Researchers have identified specific genetic mutations that can cause Parkinson’s disease, but these are uncommon except in rare cases with many family members affected by Parkinson’s disease.

However, certain gene variations appear to increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease but with a relatively small risk of Parkinson’s disease for each of these genetic markers.

  • Environmental triggers. Exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors may increase the risk of later Parkinson’s disease, but the risk is relatively small.

Researchers have also noted that many changes occur in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease, although it’s not clear why these changes occur. These changes include:

  • The presence of Lewy bodies. Clumps of specific substances within brain cells are microscopic markers of Parkinson’s disease. These are called Lewy bodies, and researchers believe these Lewy bodies hold an important clue to the cause of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Alpha-synuclein is found within Lewy bodies. Although many substances are found within Lewy bodies, scientists believe an important one is the natural and widespread protein called alpha-synuclein (A-synuclein). It’s found in all Lewy bodies in a clumped form that cells can’t break down. This is currently an important focus among Parkinson’s disease researchers.

Risk factors

Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Age. Young adults rarely experience Parkinson’s disease. It ordinarily begins in middle or late life, and the risk increases with age. People usually develop the disease around age 60 or older.
  • Heredity. Having a close relative with Parkinson’s disease increases the chances that you’ll develop the disease. However, your risks are still small unless you have many relatives in your family with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Sex. Men are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than are women.
  • Exposure to toxins. Ongoing exposure to herbicides and pesticides may put you at a slightly increased risk of Parkinson’s disease.

Complications

Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by these additional problems, which may be treatable:

  • Thinking difficulties. You may experience cognitive problems (dementia) and thinking difficulties, which usually occur in the later stages of Parkinson’s disease. Such cognitive problems aren’t very responsive to medications.
  • Depression and emotional changes. People with Parkinson’s disease may experience depression. Receiving treatment for depression can make it easier to handle the other challenges of Parkinson’s disease.

You may also experience other emotional changes, such as fear, anxiety or loss of motivation. Doctors may give you medications to treat these symptoms.

  • Swallowing problems. You may develop difficulties with swallowing as your condition progresses. Saliva may accumulate in your mouth due to slowed swallowing, leading to drooling.
  • Sleep problems and sleep disorders. People with Parkinson’s disease often have sleep problems, including waking up frequently throughout the night, waking up early or falling asleep during the day.

People may also experience rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, which involves acting out your dreams. Medications may help your sleep problems.

  • Bladder problems. Parkinson’s disease may cause bladder problems, including being unable to control urine or having difficulty urinating.
  • Constipation. Many people with Parkinson’s disease develop constipation, mainly due to a slower digestive tract.

You may also experience:

  • Blood pressure changes. You may feel dizzy or lightheaded when you stand due to a sudden drop in blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension).
  • Smell dysfunction. You may experience problems with your sense of smell. You may have difficulty identifying certain odors or the difference between odors.
  • Fatigue. Many people with Parkinson’s disease lose energy and experience fatigue, and the cause isn’t always known.
  • Pain. Many people with Parkinson’s disease experience pain, either in specific areas of their bodies or throughout their bodies.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Some people with Parkinson’s disease notice a decrease in sexual desire or performance.

10 thoughts on “Parkinson’s Disease”

    1. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure used to treat a variety of neurological symptoms-most commonly the symptoms of Parkinsons disease (PD), such as tremor, rigidity, stiffness, slowed movement, and walking problems. The procedure is also used to treat essential tremor, a common neurological movement disorder. DBS does not damage healthy brain tissue by destroying nerve cells. Instead the procedure blocks electrical signals from targeted areas in the brain.

      DBS is often described as a pacemaker for the brain. It works much like a pacemaker, sending electrical signals to the brain instead of the heart. It is primarily utilized for patients who have Parkinsons disease, dystonia, or essential tremor (ET), and who cant adequately control their disease with medication.

      For those with Parkinson, DBS can reduce tremors and significantly improve slowness and stiffness; and make tremors disappear for those with ET. DBS can help relax muscles and improve abnormal postures caused by muscle contractions for those with dystonia. In all cases, DBS can help enhance quality of life.

      Multiple factors regulates the cost of Parkison’s Disease.

      For More Information : https://wiki.expertchikitsa.com/contact-us

    1. Parkinson’s is a progressive disorder caused by the degeneration of a small part of the brain called Substantia nigra. There is no cure of the disease till now but it can be treated for symptomatic improvements using multiple methods like medication, therapy, and other surgical procedures.

      Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment :
      Deep brain stimulation is a USFDA approved surgical treatment for people suffering from the indicated patients are selected by a trained movement disorder specialist and the benefits of the therapy are discussed before the surgery.

      The DBS works through a small, pace-maker like device placed under the skin of the chest to send electronic signals or impulses to the area of brain that controls movement. These signals block some of the messages that cause Parkinson’s disease symptoms.

      How Safe Is Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment?

      DBS has now been in place for over 30 years and is actively used with approvals from FDA and CE universally for over a decade. It is a minimal risk procedure with a low risk of intraoperative and post-operative complications to the brain tissue.

      Only 2.5% patients annually get affected with skin infections after the procedure. Temporary complications occur in only 0.6% of patients, while up to 1% patients suffer from permanent health impairments. The risk of death in this procedure is approximately 0.4%.

      It is recommended to consult from a neurologist or neurosurgeon before opting the DBS treatment so that you can get an expert advice as well as precautionary measures to deal with any complications that may lie ahead. An active discussion on risks vs benefits should be held between the patients, caregivers, neurologist and neurosurgeon.
      Deep Brain Stimulation Cost in India – Highly affordable

      There has been more than 1,50,000 DBS procedures till date and the safety profile and complications are relatively know to the operating neurosurgeon.

    1. Dr. Prashanth LK, Parkinson’s Disease & Movement Disorders Specialist, Vikram Hospitals, Bengaluru: “Currently in India, patients of Parkinson’s have only two options: either oral treatment for the early stages of the disease, or very expensive Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery for advanced stages. There was no treatment for the middle stages of the disease. Most patients in India cannot afford DBS. This procedure is also not a choice for all ages or stages of Parkinson’s Disease. Apomorphine is recommended for patients who have started to have motor fluctuations – that is, the effect of oral medications is not lasting long enough for them. It is an effective alternative for patients who are not the right candidates for DBS, or those who do not want to undergo surgery yet. Introduction of apomorphine in India has given an important medical option to doctors in the middle stages of the management of Parkinson’s Disease and improve the quality of life of patients.”

    1. 1. Gleneagles Global Hospitals – Location Chennai

      Gleneagles Global Hospitals is part of Parkway Pantai, a fully owned subsidiary of IHH Healthcare. In India, Gleneagles Global Hospitals operates a chain of multi-super specialty hospitals offering tertiary and quaternary healthcare services with over 2,000 beds and state-of the-art, world-class hospitals in Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore and Mumbai. A pioneer in kidney, liver, heart and lung transplants, Gleneagles Global Hospitals provides comprehensive multi-organ transplant services in the country.
      Gleneagles Global Hospitals aims to strengthen and expand its leading market position as a destination for multi-organ transplant for patients from India, Middle East, Africa and South East Asia. We are committed to further our aspiration of making quality health care more accessible to all.
      We are very fortunate that our existing cohort of consultants and surgeons are leaders in their fields, and looked upon as iconic figures in the medical fraternity

      2. Dr. Alok Gupta – Max Multispecialty hospital Saket New Delhi

      Dr. Alok Gupta is the senior consultant neurosurgeon at Metro Multispeciality hospital Faridabad, one of the leading hospitals in National capital region. Having qualifications like M.ch Neurosurgery, M.S. (Gen.Surgery) and M.B.B.S. the main aim or motive of Dr. Gupta remains to provide top- notch services in the field of Stereotactic neurosurgery. Dr. Gupta had been associated with some of the leading hospitals of India such as Artemis Health Institute Gurgaon, Max Multispecialty hospital Saket New Delhi and VIMHANS New Delhi.

      Dr. Alok Gupta is performing Deep Brain Stimulation surgeries since 1998 and so far has perform more than 500 procedures for various indications. He is credited for starting First DBS for Parkinson disease in 1998 in India, First case of DBS for OCD in 2010 in Asia and first case of DBS for refractory epilepsy in 2012 in Asia.

      3. Vikram Hospital – Bangalore

      Vikram Hospital’s Department of Neurosciences combines the expertise of the best neurosurgery, neurology, neuro-oncology and interventional neuro-radiology specialists with state-of-the-art diagnostic equipment and advanced surgical technology to offer the most effective treatment to our patients.With more than 100 years of combined experience, our expert’s vast knowledge enables them to provide the simplest of solutions for highly complex neurological problems.

      Major achievements of Dr. Gupta have been acknowledged and applauded by various sectors of the healthcare society as well as media. Dr. Alok Gupta presented his work in various international and national congresses in various indications of Neuromodulation.

    1. The early signs of Parkinson’s disease

      1.cramped handwriting or other writing changes –
      A sudden change in the size of your handwriting may be an early indicator of Parkinson’s disease. People with PD have a hard time controlling movement because of the changes in the brain. This can make fine motor skills like writing more difficult.

      2.tremor, especially in finger, hand or foot – A slight twitching or shaking of a finger, hand, or foot is common. The person experiencing the tremor is likely to be the only person who notices them in early stages of PD.

      3.uncontrollable movements during sleep – Early signs of the disease can include many uncontrollable movements, not just occasionally, but on a regular basis. Kicking, thrashing, flailing your arms, and even falling out of bed can be indications of a serious problem.

      4.limb stiffness or slow movement (bradykinesia) –
      Stiffness of the limbs (rigidity) and slow movement (bradykinesia) appear early on with PD. These symptoms are caused by the impairment of the neurons that control movement. A person with PD will notice jerkier motions and move in a more uncoordinated pattern than before. Eventually, a person may develop the characteristic “shuffling gait.”

      5.voice changes – slurred speech of advanced Pariknson’s Disease patients. Less dramatic voice changes can occur in early stages of the disease.

      6.rigid facial expression or masking – Parkinson’s can affect the natural facial expressions in addition to gross motor skills. People often comment that some individuals with Pariknson’s Disease have a blank stare.

      7.stooped posture – Parkinson’s disease is a serious and chronic condition. Pariknson’s Disease treatment is significantly more successful when the disease is caught in its earliest stages. Diagnosis can be difficult, as many of the early signs are similar to those in other health conditions.

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